# Quick Reference Study Notes for Logical Aptitude (Advanced) << Back to Exam

LOGICAL APTITUDE

Introduction
Logical aptitude is a process of using a general rules and principles based on mathematical procedures and given statements to arrive on a conclusion.

Logical aptitude test
Logical aptitude(ability) tests are designed to test the candidate’s logical/mental abilities or skills. Such as making judgement, number series, shapes relationship and many more.

Logical Aptitude Topics:

1. Number series

2. Letter and symbol series

3. Coding decoding

4. Direction sense

5. Syllogism

6. Pictorial Reasoning

7. Blood relations

8. Assumption

9. Judgements

10. Data sufficiency

11. Classification

12. Arrangement(Seating and rank)

1. Number series:

You will given a number series, in each series, observe for the degree and direction of change between the numbers that do the numbers increase or decrease, and by how much.

Example:

Que type 1. Find the next two terms of the series 11 14 14 17 17 20 20.

Que type 2. Which of the following number yields maximum remainder, when it is divided  by 15 ?

2.  Letter and symbol series

You will given a letter or number patterns, and you will have to fill the blank in the middle or the end of the series.

Example:

Que type 1: QAR, RAS, SAT, TAU, _____

Que type 2: C4X, F9U, 116R, ?

3. Coding decoding:

In these type of questions you will be given a coded sentence or words, and you will have decode the other coded sentence/ word on basis of previous ones.

Example:

Que type 1: If ENGLAND is written as 1234526 and FRANCE is written as 785291, how    is GREECE coded?

Que type 2:

In a certain code

‘light is very sharp’ is coded as 8243,

‘right is very wrong’ is coded as 2817,

‘knife is sharp’ is coded as 548 and

‘wrong and sharp’ is coded as 476.

Answer the following questions based on the data.

1. How is the word "knife" coded?

4. Direction sense

You will be given information about the movement of a person in a certain direction for a distance, and you will have to answer the question based on his movement in that particular directions.

Example:

Que type 1: Ann walks 12 miles in the direction of west then he turns to his right and walks further 5 miles, how far is he exactly from the starting point (in miles) ?

Que type 2: There are 5 shops A, B, C, D and E. B is to the northeast of E. D is 2 km to the east of E, which is 6 km to the west of A. C is to the northwest of D and in the line of EB. D is 4km the south of B.

Refer the above for the Questions

a. In which direction is A with respect to B ?

b. What is the distance between shop D and shop A ?

5. Syllogism

Syllogism is a kind of logical argument where you have to reach to a conclusion by examining two or more ideas.

Example:

Que type 1:     Statement:

All heros are Zeros

All Zeros are villains

Some heroes are jokers

Conclusion:

I ) Some Jokers are heroes II) Some Zeros are jokers  III) Some villains are Zeros

1. All I ,II, III follows b)  Only I, II follow

c) Only II, III follow d)  Only I,III follows

e) None of these

6. Arrangement(Seating and rank)

Que type 1:

Six players K,M,G,D,L and T are sitting in a circular table facing the center. M is to the left of K . D is between G and T . L is between G and M . And M is diagonally opposite to D.

Refer the above for the Questions

a. How many people seated between G and D if counted clockwise?

b. Who sits diagonally opposite to G?

Que type 2:

 There are 8 houses in a line and in each house only one boy lives with the conditions as given below: Jack is not the neighbour Siman. Harry is just next to the left of Larry. There is at least one to the left of Larry. Paul lives in one of the two houses in the middle. Mike lives in between Paul and Larry. If at least one lives to the right of Robert and Harry is not between Taud and Larry, then which one of the following statement is not correct ? Robert is not at the left end. Robert is in between Simon and Taud. Taud is in between Paul and Jack. There are three persons to the right of Paul.   7.  Pictorial Reasoning           In these type on question you will be given a few pictures with data in it. And you have to answer a few questions based on those. Example: Que type 1: Find the number in the missing place. Que type 2: Select a suitable figure from the four alternatives that would complete the figure matrix

8.  Blood relations

Blood relations shows the relations between different members of a family and you will be given a relation puzzle between different type and numbers of a family members.

Example:

Que type 1:

A family consists of six members P, Q, R, S, T, and U. T is the daughter  of Q. Q and S are married couple. P is the brother of Q. R is the son of S but S is not the mother of R. U is the brother of S.

Refer the above for these Questions

a. Find the paternal uncle of T?

b. What is the relationship of T to R?

Que type 2: Study the following information carefully and answer the questions given below

A + B means A is brother of B

A - B  means A is father of B

A * B  means A is uncle of B

A / B  means A is sister of B

Refer the above for these Questions

i. From the given expression L + M * N / P which of the following is true?

a. L is the brother of N b.   L is the uncle of P

c. L is the sister of P       d.   M is the sister of P

e. None of the above

9.  Assumption

In these type of question you will given the statements followed by the assumptions and you will have to consider the statements and the following assumptions and find out which one is the correct assumption.

Example:

Que type 1:

Statement: Detergents should be used to clean clothes.

Assumptions:

1. Detergents form more lather.

2. Detergents help to dislodge grease and dirt.

10. Judgements

In these type of question you will be given a circumstance and asked to make a judgement based on that situation.

Example:

Que type 1:

Eileen is planning a special birthday dinner for her husband's 35th birthday. She wants the evening to be memorable, but her husband is a simple man who would rather be in jeans at a baseball game than in a suit at a fancy restaurant. Which restaurant below should Eileen choose?

a. Alfredo's offers fine Italian cuisine and an elegant Tuscan decor. Patrons will feel as though they've spent the evening in a luxurious Italian villa.

b. Pancho's Mexican Buffet is an all-you-can-eat family style smorgasbord with the best tacos in town.

c. The Parisian Bistro is a four-star French restaurant where guests are treated like royalty. Chef Dilbert Olay is famous for his beef bourguignon.

d. Marty's serves delicious, hearty meals in a charming setting reminiscent of a baseball clubhouse in honor of the owner,Marty Lester, a former major league baseball all-star.

e. None of these

11. Data sufficiency

You have to decide whether the data provided in the statement(s) is / are sufficient to answer the given question.

Example:

Que type 1:

Average age of employees working in a department is 30 years. In the next year, 8 workers will retire. What will be the average age in the next year?

I. Retirement age is 60 years.

II. There are 50 employees in the department.

1. I alone sufficient while II alone not sufficient to answer

2. II alone sufficient while I alone not sufficient to answer

3. Either I or II alone sufficient to answer

4. Both I and II are not sufficient to answer

5. Both I and II are necessary to answer

Que type 2:

What is the number ?

I . The sum of the digits is 10. The ratio of the two digits is 1 : 4.

II. The product of the two digit number is 16. The quotient is 4.

1. I alone sufficient while II alone not sufficient to answer

2. II alone sufficient while I alone not sufficient to answer

3. Either I or II alone sufficient to answer

4. Both I and II are not sufficient to answer

5. Both I and II are necessary to answer

12. Classification

In these type of question you will given few items or ideas and you will have to categorize them based on their categories.

Example:

Que type 1: Find the odd one out

1. Nephew d. Brother

2. Cousin e. Niece

3. None of these

Que type 2: Choose the odd pair of words.

1. Blacksmith : Anvil                             2. Carpenter : Saw

3.   Barber : Scissor                            4. Goldsmith : Ornaments

5. Sculptor ; Chisel

*NOTE : "This study material is collected from multiple sources to make a quick refresh course available to students."