Quick Reference Study Notes for English Sentence Building (Foundation)

English Sentence Building


ARTICLES

An article is a special adjective that is used with the noun.

There are two types of adjectives:

  • Indefinite Articles -

The indefinite article shows that a noun refers to a general idea rather than a particular thing. There are two indefinite articles - a,an.

  1. a - ‘a’ is the indefinite article because it comes with a general noun. It is used with the consonants (letters which are other than the vowels -a,e,i,o,u)

Example:

After a long weekend, it seems very difficult to attend the office.

Here, ‘a’ is used to generalize the statement that after any long weekend it seems very difficult to attend the office. It is not about a particular weekend.

  1. An - ‘an’ is also an indefinite article that comes with a general noun. The difference of this article with ‘a’ is that it comes with a vowel (a,e,i,o,u) or the words that sounds like vowel sound.

Example:

Joe is an honest man.

Rich is an automobile engineer.

 

  • Definite Articles -

The definite article shows that a noun refers to a particular thing. The definite article is ‘the’. Example:

After the long weekend, it seemed very difficult to attend the office.

Here, ‘the’ is used to make the statement for a particular long weekend after which it seemed very difficult to attend the office. It is not about any weekend.

 

OBJECTS

The object is any noun or concept that is part of the action of the subject. It is the part of the sentence that receives the action of the verb performed by the subject.

Example:

Brac gave a surprise gift to Chris.

Here, Chris is the Object who is receiving gift from Brac.

 

SENTENCES

A sentence is a set of words that we arrange together to express our thoughts. It is a combination of subject, verb, object and prepositional phrase.

Subject - A subject is a person, place, thing, idea or concept that does the action or about whom the sentence is going to be.

Verb - A verb is a part of speech that tells about an action or a state of the subject. Every sentence has a verb.

Object - The object of a sentence is the person ,place or thing that receives the action of the verb performed by the subject.

Prepositional phrase -  A prepositional phrase is a set of words containing prepositions. Prepositions shows a relationship between a noun or pronoun and another words in a sentence.

Example:

I like bread for breakfast.

Here,

‘I’ is subject

‘like’ is verb

‘bread’ is object

‘For dinner’ is prepositional phrase.


Types of Sentences
There are four types of sentences in english:-

  1. Declarative

  2. Imperative

  3. Interrogative

  4. Exclamatory

 

Declarative

A declarative sentence is a type of sentence that simply declares or states something. It almost  ends with a period (.).

Example:

I am eating grapes.


Imperative

An imperative sentence is a type of sentence that gives instructions or advice, and expresses a command, an order, or a request.

Example:

Stop asking me questions!

Please give me a pen.


Interrogative

An interrogative sentence is a type of sentence that asks a question and uses a question mark at the end.

Example:

What is your name?

Do you have an extra pen?

 

Exclamatory

An exclamatory sentence is a type of sentence that conveys excitement or emotion. It is just like a declarative sentence but it ends with an exclamation sign(!).

Example:

What a pleasant surprise!

Hurray, we won!
 

SUBJECT AND PREDICATE

Subject

The subject of a sentence is the person, place, thing, or idea that is doing something. A subject specifies who does the action or about whom the sentence is going to be.

Example:

Reena is making the noise.

Here, the sentence is about Reena so she is the subject of the sentence.

Predicate

The predicate is the part of a sentence that includes the verb and verb phrase.

Example:

Reena is making the noise.

Here,  is making the noise is the predicate of the sentence.
 

WORD ORDER

The word order is the arrangement of words in a sentence. The word order depends on the type of the sentence whether its positive sentence, negative sentence or other.

Word Order for positive sentence

Subject + Verb + Object + Place + Time

Example - She loves chocolates.

Word Order for negative sentence

The word order for negative sentences is same as that for positive sentences.

Subject + Verb + Object + Place + Time

Example - She do not love chocolates.

Word Order for interrogative sentences

Interrogative + Auxiliary verb + Subject + Verb + Object + Place + Time

Example - What is your name?

*NOTE : "This study material is collected from multiple sources to make a quick refresh course available to students."

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